International Journal of Agricultural Invention <p>The International Journal of Agricultural Invention (IJAI) is a peer-reviewed open access biannual journal published in English by the Agricultural Technology Development Society, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. This journal is published half yearly in the month of June and December, every year. The Journal is devoted to basic and applied aspects of agricultural and life science. The journal welcomes original research/ review papers in these areas. The articles can be published as full research paper or as short communication. The editorial board may invite important short reviews from eminent scientist/delegates/research scholar’s working in the respective fields. Authors may note that the articles submitted to the International Journal of Agricultural Invention are not submitted simultaneously to any other journal for publication. All research papers and review articles submitted for publications will be reviewed by referees with complete postal address, who can be approached to review the paper. However, final decision will rest with the editorial board.</p> en-US (Joginder Singh) (Pradeep Tiwari) Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A study on water seepage losses for ponds and reservoirs Irrigation is main factor for agricultural production. Our aim is to increase agricultural yield by increasing area under irrigation. It is very important to see that more water available for irrigation is completely used as far as possible to avoid water loss during conveyance through canal. Seepage loss is major water loss during transit. Rainwater harvesting is the artificial collection, storage and use of runoff or rain water. The water harvesting with tanks and ponds is one option to increase water availability and agricultural production at the household level. Rain fed agriculture can be protected by adopting farm ponds. The harvested runoff water in a farm pond creates salinization / water logging problems so; it has to be lined to control the seepage losses. The article presents a review on the type of lining materials viable and to explore for a cost effective sealant which can be adapted. In comparison to clay lining, Bentonite, polymers like HDPE, LDPE, Silpoulin, LLDPE in combination with concrete increases the durability along with the 100% seepage control with benefit cost ratio for HDPE lining in combination with concrete showed highest value of 10.4:1. Bentonite, though costly has shown significant results by reducing the seepage losses by 72% to 96% respectively, depending on the thickness of application. In vertisols, lining did not show any significant variation. Whereas alfisols, luvisols of arid and semi-arid regions require lining materials with diversified crops and conservative irrigation practices. Attia El Gayar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 25 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of the status of major vegetables in Bajura, Nepal The favourable climatic condition of Nepal has endowed it for cultivation of greater than 50 vegetable crops and making vegetable sector a dominating sector in terms of area and production after cereals. The time series secondary data of major vegetables grown in Bajura district for area (ha), production (MT) and yield (kg/ha) of total 18 years period from 1999/2000 to 2016/17 was extracted from statistical information on Nepalese Agriculture published by MoALD, publications of VDD (Vegetable Development Directorate), Annual Agriculture Development Program and Statistics Book (AADPSB) published by AKC (Agriculture Knowledge Center) Bajura and beyonds. Other reliable sources of information were also scrutinized for extracting secondary data for the completion of research. MK-Test was used for detecting monotonic trend in the time series and simple linear regression was performed to test a linear trend. MS-Excel software was used for statistical analysis and Linear trend analysis model was used for data interpretation using slope and intercept parameters. The result illustrated that the increment in the rate of vegetable production was higher (258.44 MT/year) than cultivated area (24.599 ha/year) throughout the analyzed period (1999/2000 to 2016/17). Concurrently, the yield of major vegetables was also in increasing trend. Similarly, the recent trends (2012/13 to 2016/17) showed that the yield of Cruciferous crops, Solanaceous crops, Malvaceous crops, Umbelliferae crops and Cucurbitaceous crops was in increasing trend with markable fluctuations in cultivated area and production. This research can be a useful tool for horticulturists and other concerned authorities for further research and amelioration of the status of major vegetables in Bajura district. Devashish Bhandari, Sagar Dahal, Arjun Kumar Shrestha, Govinda Sijapati, Min Prasad Jaishi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in cattle and buffalo in Samastipur district of Bihar A total of 366 faecal samples including 225 cattle and 141 buffalo of different age groups were randomly collected and analyzed for presence of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites from five different blocks on both sides of Burhi Gandak River in Samastipur district of Bihar in 2015-16. Among cattle 115 (51.11 %) and among buffalo 88 (62.40%) samples were found positive for different species of gastrointestinal helminthes. The prevalence of trematodes, nematodes and cestodes in cattle were 44, 6 and 8 percent, respectively and in buffalo were 35, 18 and 15 percent, respectively. Mixed infection in cattle and buffalo faecal samples was 6.8% and 5.6%, respectively. 4.40 % cattle and 6.60 % buffalo were severely affected, in which egg count per gram was more than 1600. In 1-90 days age group calves 65.6 % cattle and 90.47 % buffalo were positive. Pramod Kumar, R. K. Asthana, P. K. Ram, Manoj Kumar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 25 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of indigenous endophytic bacteria (Bacillus spp.) for their beneficial effect on growth of Sugarcane Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) occupies an important position among the various commercial crops of India. It is the second most important agro-industrial crop, next only to cotton in the country. Among the various approaches, use of microorganisms is one of the crucial approaches for enhancement of crop production. In recent years, endophytic bacteria are gaining much attention towards the sustainable management of the agricultural crops. They not only help in the plant growth but also in alleviating the various stresses due to their multi-faceted role. In current study, two endophytic bacteria i.e. B. cereus (strain S8) and B. subtilis (strain S 17) isolated from the sugarcane root and stalk were evaluated for their plant growth promotion activity in vitro and as well as in vivo. Data indicated that the percentage germination was higher in B. cereus (S8) over B. subtilis (S 17) treated setts when observed after 45 days of planting. Various growth parameters viz., cane height, weight, number of shoots and internodes were also increased in the presence of endophytic bacterial inoculation over uninoculated control. Thus, it is concluded that sett treatment with indigenous endophytic bacteria (Bacillus spp.) can be exploited for enhancing cane yield and productivity in sugarcane culture. Beenu Shastri, Rajesh Kumar, Ram Ji Lal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 23 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of horticultural crops in Arunachal Pradesh with special reference to West Kameng District The Arunachal Pradesh region is one of the richest reservoirs of genetic variability and diversity of different crops i.e. various kinds of fruits, different vegetables, spices, ornamental plants and also medicinal and aromatic plants. The diversity for horticultural crops of this region has mainly been managed by local farmers, often women. Considerable diversity exists among the regional horticultural species including variation in plant type, morphological and physiological characteristics, reactions to diseases and pests, adaptability and distribution. Apart from the nutritional value, many regional horticultural crops are used for medicinal purposes and income generating source in the rural areas. The Arunachal Pradesh of States constitutes the District of West Kameng, Tawang, East siang, East Kameng, Papum Pare, Lower Subansiri, Kurang Kumey, Upper Subansari, West siang, East siang, Upper siang, Dibang valley, Lower Dibang valley, Lohit, Anjaw, Changlang and Tirap. The raining season in this region generally commences from March and lasts till the end of September. Diverse agro–climate condition, fertile soils and abundance of rainfall offer immense scope for development in the horticulture sector. This paper is a humble effort at bringing fort the states of production of the horticultural crops of the Arunachal Pradesh, particularly West Kameng. The exportable surplus and its potentialities is also discus as well as the potential for the National/ International markets is also found out along with the problems of support for export promotion, transport facility etc. T. S. Mishra, N. K. Mishra, H. M. Singh, Kadambari Mishra, Joginder Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 29 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study on correlation between independents variables of career opportunities in girl students states agriculture universities in Uttar Pradesh Agriculture universities at present with different branches of agriculture sciences offering under educated programme in various field of specialization. In these institution teaching, research and extension education function are integrated for the mutual benefit of each other. The choice of field of specialization is a crucial decision in the career learner. The choice may depend upon a number of considerations like personal preferences, aptitude, future career plans, family back ground. The degree of awareness about career opportunities as indicated by the respondents. It is clear from the above table the professor/ scientists (67.50%), ranked I, was highly aware by the respondents rest respondents who had other awareness about career opportunity with them were in descending order as Government (60.83%) ranked II, Banking (56.66%) ranked III respectively. Swati Chaturvedi, Kshitij Parmar, Dan Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study on improvement needs for the soil water balance One critical problem confronting mankind today is how to manage the intensifying competition for water among expanding urban centres, traditional agricultural activities and in-stream water uses dictated by environmental concerns based solely on the soil water balance. In the agricultural sector, the prospects of increasing the gross cultivated area are limited by the dwindling number of economically attractive sites for large-scale irrigation and drainage systems whose correct evaluation depends on the understanding of groundwater movement in three dimensions. The failure of present systems, and inability of sustainable extraction from surface and groundwater sources may be attributed, essentially, to poor planning, design, management and development, as not much is known about groundwater flow systems. Each flow system has different chemical quality, path of travel, recharge area, as well as water age. To take full advantage of investment in agriculture, a major effort is required to modernize irrigation and drainage systems and to further develop appropriate management strategies compatible with financial and socio-economic trends, considering the functioning of groundwater components in the environment. This calls for a holistic approach to irrigation, drainage management, and monitoring if the aim is to increase food production, conserve water, prevent soil salinization and water logging, and to protect the environment. Sustainable development should be based on a full understanding of the relationship between the used water source and the environment. To tackle this challenge, there is a need to focus on the following issues: affordability with respect to the application of new technologies; procedures for integrated planning and management of irrigation and drainage systems; analysis to identify causes and effects constraining irrigation and drainage system performance; evapotranspiration and related calculation methods; estimation of crop water requirements; technologies for the design, construction, and modernization of irrigation and drainage systems; strategies to improve irrigation and drainage system efficiency; environmental impacts of irrigation and drainage systems and suitable measures for creating and maintaining sustainability. Institutional strengthening, proper financial assessment, capacity building, training and education actions are also required to achieve a successful on the soil water balance. Attia El Gayar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study on factors responsible for rural urban migration Rural India is yet a larder of problems like malnourishment, illiteracy, unemployment, poverty, sottishness and lack of basic infrastructure like schools/colleges, hospitals, sanitation, etc. This has pushed to rural youth moving out of villages to work in cities. Present study entitled “A study on factors responsible for rural urban migration” was conducted to explore the causes behind migration. The study was conducted in two industrially backward districts of Uttar Pradesh viz. Fatehpur and Banda. From each district one block, from each block four villages and from each village 10 respondents were selected through purposive random sampling from the list of families of rural migrants. Thus the total sample size was of 80 respondents. The data were collected by personal interview through structured schedule and simply analyzed through mean score and rank order. After making an exhaustive list of factors with the consultation of local people, causes were categorized in to five categories viz. economic factors, social factors, natural factors, good facilities of cities and other factors. Results of the study revealed that the major economic factors of migration are employment opportunities, poverty, low agriculture productivity, fragmentation of holding and Indebtedness. Prominent social factors encouraging migration were large size of family, desire to overcome of poverty, better educational opportunities, attraction towards better ways of living and loss of social prestige. Among natural factors exhaustion of natural resources was reported of highest importance. Important good facilities attracting to people are more avenue for earning better livelihood, educational facilities, medical facilities, communication facilities and good electric supply etc. Some other factors reported important by the respondents were lack of basic amenities in rural areas, better working conditions in the urban areas and hope of bright future. At the end, investigators felt that there is much more scope to conduct micro studies on migration process and its consequences to the urban as well as rural areas. N. K. Singh, Kshitij Parmar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 May 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of integrated nutrient management on nitrogen content of grain and straw of Rice crop variety Pant Dhan 4 <p>A field experiment was carried out on Pant Dhan 4, to study the effect of different nutrients treatments on the productivity of rice. This experiment reveals the fact that increased dose of Nitrogen also increase the amount of Nitrogen content in rice grain and straw. Although fertilizers are important for enhancing rice production but excess use of fertilizer cause deterioration of soil quality which ultimately affect crop productivity so it is required to investigate the physiological aspects of rice plant under integrated nutrients. When imbalanced fertilizers doses are given to the rice-wheat cropping system, they showed a considerable decline in crop productivity and soil fertility.</p> Neelam Pankaj, Gurdeep Bains, Kota Chakrapani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 09 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Estimation of mean performance and genetic association of yield and yield components traits under rainfed condition in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) The present investigation was carried out at the Research Fields, ICAR-Indian Institute of Oilseeds Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The material for present study consisted of twenty newly developed mono and multi headed restorer lines including CMS lines. The data for agronomic and yield traits i.e. days to 50% flowering, days to physiological maturity, plant height, head diameter, volume weight, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant oil content and oil yield was recorded. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for almost all characters which favour the selection. Associations among characters especially indicated that among the seven traits studied, seed yield per plant had a highly significant positive association with head diameter and significant negative correlation with days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The genotypes, COSF-6B, COSF-7B, RGP-11-P1-S2, RGP-58-P4-S1-1 and RGP-46-P3 were identified as the most important genotypes for different traits and should be utilized in heterosis breeding programme to realize high heterosis for yield and yield contributing traits. Mohan Vamsi D., Sandhyasree G., Meena H. P., Payasi S. K. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Indigenous technical knowledge based sustainable production of horticulture enterprise in North Lakhimpur district of Assam Integrated crop management strategy is inadequate without involvement of indigenous knowledge. Indigenous Technical Knowledge based on local knowledge of environment, natural resources and peoples' experience accumulated over many years. Further, the traditional technologies are eco-friendly because of being free from use of chemicals. North Eastern states are the sleeping giants and considered as store house of indigenous knowledge base due to presence of many different tribes which may be helpful in utilizing their practices for sustainable development of the rural areas without hampering the ecological pursuits of the region. The horticulture is one of the important enterprises of the north eastern hill region people and their management practices are ancient, indigenous and traditional in nature. Therefore, it is important to explore the indigenous knowledge base associated with the horticultural enterprise in the north eastern region for sustainable development. Keeping the above consideration in view, the present study is conducted to document the utilization of Indigenous knowledge system by farmers in the production of horticultural enterprise in North Lakhimpur district of Assam. The participatory methodology was followed to construct and conduct the whole research study. The key informant methods and focus group discussion methods were followed to collect the information. Shubham Singh, Sanjay Swami, G. N. Gujjar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 14 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Response of fertility and agro-chemical on growth and yield of different varieties of Clusterbean A field experiment was conducted during kharif season of 2013 to study response of clusterbean varieties to fertility levels and agro-chemicals at SKN College of Agriculture, Jobner. The experiment consisted of two varieties (RGC-1038 and RGC-1066), three treatments of fertility levels (control, 50% RDF and 100% RDF) and three treatments of agro-chemicals (control, thiourea 500 ppm twice at vegetative and pre flowering stage and thiourea 100 ppm twice at vegetative and pre flowering stage) thereby making eighteen treatment combinations tested in randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that RGC 1066 variety recorded significantly higher plant height 60 DAS and at harvest and dry matter per meter row length at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, number of pods/plant and seeds/pod, test weight, seed yield, stover yield and biological yield as compared to variety of RGC-1038. The result further indicated that application of fertilized 100% RDF significantly gave higher plant height at 60 DAS and at harvest similarly, dry matter per meter row length at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, number of pods/plant and seeds/pod, test weight, seed yield, stover yield and biological yield recorded higher over control and fertilized with 50% RDF. Likewise, application of agro-chemical @ thiourea (500 ppm) significantly increased the plant height at 60 DAS and at harvest and dry matter per meter row length at 30 DAS, 60 DAS and at harvest, number of pods/plant and seeds/pod, test weight, seed yield, stover yield and biological yield and remained at par with the application of agro-chemical @ TGA (100 ppm) over control. However, plant height at 30 DAS remained materially unchanged under different varieties, fertility levels and agro-chemicals. Rekha Yogi, O. P. Sharma, H. P. Verma, Krishna P. Kanwar, A. C. Shivran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A study on water's green economy for development in agriculture The concept of a green economy has gained currency in recent years as a paradigm for promoting economic growth and increased well-being while protecting the environment and contributing to poverty alleviation. There is no common definition of green economy, but the term clearly emphasizes the economic dimension of sustainability. Not only do the environmental (stewardship) and economic (growth) dimensions coexist in the green economy, but they are also complementary and mutually reinforcing strategies to achieve development. Water scarcity, pollution, and other water related environmental and ecological problems have been increasing rapidly in many areas of the world. Water demand management or making better use of the water we have as opposed to augmenting supply is increasingly proposed as a way of mitigating water scarcity problems. Although the achievements of irrigation in ensuring food security and improving rural welfare have been impressive, past experience also indicates problems and failures of irrigated agriculture. In addition to large water use and low efficiency, environmental concerns are usually considered the most significant problem of the irrigation sector. Environmental problems include excessive water depletion, water quality reduction, water logging and salinization. In some basins (water resources), excessive diversion of river water for irrigation (and other uses) has brought environmental and ecological disasters to downstream areas, and groundwater pumping at unsustainable rates has contributed to the lowering of groundwater tables and to salt water intrusion in some coastal areas. Many water quality problems have also been created or aggravated by changes in stream flows associated with agriculture’s consumptive uses. Moving water away from agriculture to uses with higher economic value is one of the main measures widely seen as desirable. This apparent misallocation is often attributed to the failure of government to allocate water rationally. This paper focuses on achieving a sustainable balance between irrigation management and sustainable development and water investments. Attia El Gayar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Selection of best gene pool combination of the basis of heterotic response analysis for grain yield and its contributing traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) The results were indicated that, out of sixty crosses, the most desirable five crosses showing high significant positive heterosis over better parent for grain yield per plant were IR 79156A X NDR 370132 (72.19%), IR 68888A X NDR 370132 (66.69%), IR 68897A X NDR 370131 (43.33%), IR 58025A X CR 2499 (40.71%) and IR 79156A X NDR 2701 (35.80%). Eighteen crosses showed positive and significant heterosis over standard variety and the best five crosses among them were IR 58025A X NDR 1127 (20.78%), IR 79156A X IR 27723 (14.87%), IR 68888A X IR 27723 (14.81%), IR 58025A X Sugandha 5 (12.84%) and IR 68897A X NDR 2701 (12.46%). The cross, IR 58025A X NDR 1127, showed highest mean performance (28.70g), heterobeltiosis (22.48%) and standard heterosis (20.78%) for grain yield per plant while highest yielding parent, NDR-359, produced mean grain yield 23.78 g. Sonu Kumar, M. P. Chauhan, Amit Tomar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Increase in growth, productivity, nutritional status of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and enrichment in soil fertility applied with Azospirillum and nitrogen level Field experiments were conducted to Influence of different levels of nitrogen and Azospirillum inoculation on direct-seeded rice in a Vertisol, during kharif season of 2015 at Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, JNKVV, Jabalpur. The experiment was laid out under randomized block design (RBD) with 3 replications and 8 treatments namely (unfertilized+uninoculated (UFUI), recommended dose of nitrogen 50%+uninoculated (RDN50%+UI), RDN75%+UI, RDN100%+UI, UF+Azospirillum (UF+Azosp.,), RDN50%+Azosp., RDN75%+Azosp and RDN100%+Azosp.,). It was observed that significant improvement was noticed in yield attributes and soil properties. The response from the treatment of RDN100% +Azosp., was found statistically best to increase available nitrogen (N) content in soil at 45 DAS and at harvest of the crop by 29% and 27%, respectively and N content in the plant, grain and straw by 46%, 50% and 55%, respectively over the control of UFUI. Similarly, trend was significantly enhanced total N uptake by crop with 129% over the control of UFUI. While, same treatment combination increasing azospiral population in rhizospheric soil at 45 DAS, 65 DAS and at harvest by 2.28, 2.07 and 2.05 log folds, respectively over the control of UFUI and enhanced yield attributes and yields of grain and straw of rice with 113 and 58%, respectively over the control of UFUI. While the treatment RDN100%+Azosp., exhibited numerically higher values but was statistically at par to RDN75%+Azosp. V. Namdeo, N. G. Mitra, S. R. Jakhar, R. K. Sahu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 In-situ trash management induced sustainability of soil health to produce the qualitative products In-situ trash management is necessary to cut the atmosphere pollution as well as replenishment of plant nutrient. Burning of crop residues leads to release of soot particles and smoke causing human and animal health problems. It also leads to emission of greenhouse gases namely carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, causing global warming and loss of plant nutrients like N, P, K and S. Soils of the world’s agro ecosystems (i.e., croplands, grazing lands, rangelands) are depleted of their soil organic carbon (SOC) stock by 25-75% depending on climate, soil type, historic management and the magnitude of this loss may be 10 to 50 Mg C ha-1. Integrated sugarcane trash management (ISTM), microbial enriched (Trichoderma viridae) and farm yard manure is effective in enhancing the soil health and sugarcane yield. Soil organic carbon is the most important attribute and chosen as the most important indicator of soil and environment quality and agricultural sustainability. Rajendra Bairwa, Mamta ., Devi Lal Dhaker, Neeraj Bagoria ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 18 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A study on extent of adoption of recommended Chilli (Capsicum annum L.) production technology among the farmers of Patharia in Madhya Pradesh The present study on extent of adoption of chilli growers was conducted in Damoh district of Madhya Pradesh covering one block. A total of 120 respondents were selected by simple random sampling method from six randomly selected villages. Pre-tested well structured interview schedule was used for collecting the relevant information’s. The study inferred that majority of the respondents were of middle aged, belonged to medium size of family, other backward class, illiterate, having low annual income between Rs. 35,001 to 60,000,no membership in any organization indicating poor social participation and farming (chilli cultivation) as the main occupation. Most of the respondents were having medium level of knowledge have medium level of adoption. It was found that villagers do not get other vegetable for their commercial income, through chilli they at least filling this gap of income, although they are producing chilli at low level. Majority of the respondents reported that reasons of adoption of this crop due to chilli needs, less hard work with high benefits and income and it is good for soil also. Brajesh Singh Thakur, Richa Sharma, Kota Chakrapani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 13 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on irrigation water quality in some minor lift irrigation schemes and its impact on soil characteristics The quality parameters of irrigation water in some minor lift irrigation schemes on Bhor nallah, Chatha farm at Gidergalion were evaluated and their impacts on soil characteristics in the fringe areas of Ranvir canal and non command were studied. Irrigation water samples at monthly intervals were collected and analyzed for pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Magnesium Hazards (MH) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) by following standard methods. The soil samples from the concern command and adjoining areas (non command) were also collected and analyzed for important physico chemical properties and available nutrients as per standard procedures. Results revealed that majority of water samples collected from minor lift irrigation schemes on Bhor and Balal nallahs containing municipal/industrial waste was under high salinity-low SAR category, whereas water samples of Ranbir Canal at Gidergalian falls under medium salinity-low SAR. The soil characteristics viz. pH, EC, OC and available N, P and K were higher in command soils of Bhor and Chatha as compared to non command soils of Gidergalian and Dharap. Sanjay Swami ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impact assessment on water harvesting and valley dams Gravity dam is one of the biggest structures built on the Earth. It is known as a life line structure, as it serves the purpose of irrigation, hydro-electric power generation, flood control, domestic and industrial water supply etc., which are important for human existence. This makes dam as a reliable structure. For this reason, dam should always be designed for highest safety. Dam is one of the hydraulic structures constructed to serve particular functions. It is a water control feature to impound water supply, to divert water from a water course, or to raise the elevation for water body. In supplying the water to the consumers, a dam holds it from flowing into the pipe, tunnel and conduit. Earth fill dams are a good alternative to dugouts where larger volumes of water must be stored at a reasonable cost and suitable site conditions exist. Proper design and construction is essential for dams; otherwise they will fail from washouts or seepage losses. If water quantity is your main priority, then a dam could be the best option. If better water quality is the important factor, a dugout is probably a better option. Take the time to properly plan, construct, inspect and maintain your dam, and it will be a valuable water resource for your farm for many years to come. However, poor management of dams can cause problems and disasters in terms of safety of dam and how it affects the people and the environment. This study focuses for conducts how the design, operator and maintenance of dam to be ensure it is safety. Attia El Gayar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 23 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Productivity enhancement in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as influenced by different improved production technologies Sesame is one of the important oilseed crops in India. The major constraint of its low productivity is non-adoption of improved technologies by the farmers. Cluster Frontline demonstrations to highlight the impact of different improved technologies like method of sowing, nutrient management, weed management and adoption of whole package of practices of improved technologies for the crop were conducted at 125 farmers' fields during Kharif 2017 and 2020 under rainfed conditions. The improved technologies improved the yield attributing traits as well as seed yield of the crop. The improved technology recorded a mean yield of 476 kg/ha which was 44.68% higher than that obtained with farmer's practice yield of 329 kg/ha. Higher mean net returns of 33,363/ha with a benefit: cost ratio of 3.28 was obtained with improved technologies in comparison to farmer's practice (mean net returns of 18,222/ha and benefit: cost ratio of 2.25). Hrish Kumar Rachhoya, Mukesh Sharma, V. K. Saini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on nutrient management in high yield Wheat system in Bihar using nutrient expert tool The SSNM is need-based feeding of crops with nutrients in right source, right rate, right time and right place while, recognizing the inherent spatial variability which enhances crop productivity, profitability, NUE and avoids nutrient wastage. This paper deals with the SSNM technologies approaches and tools which are able to enhance NUE, crop productivity and profitability in wheat crop. The SSNM caters to help in improving NUE as it provides an approach for feeding crops like rice, maize and wheat, etc with nutrients as and when needed. It is based on the concept when and how much to feed. The main benefit for farmers from improved nutrient management strategy is an increase in the profitability and reducing the cost and environmental threats. The SSNM reduces the wastage of fertilizers by preventing excessive use of fertilizers and avoiding fertilizer application when the crop does not require nutrient inputs. It also assures that N, P and K are applied in that ratio required by the intended crop. It aims to achieve high yield and high efficiency of nutrient use, leading to high cash value of the harvest per unit of fertilizer invested. Results from three years data from 2014 to 2016, 173 on-farm sites in four districts of Bihar showed that NE significantly increased wheat yields and economic returns compared to the generalized Farmers’ Fertilization Practice (FFP). NE’s impact on fertilizer use in wheat shifted K application upwards while also minute upwards N and P application rates. The study used recent advances in information and communication technology (ICT) and computer based application of "Nutrient Expert for Wheat, Maize and Rice", which transform the science of SSNM into guidelines matching the field-specific needs and conditions of a farmer. Across all sites, NE wheat increased to yield and economic benefit (i.e. gross return above fertilizer costs) over FFP. Recommendations from NE wheat also increased yield (by .63 t/ha) over FFP with large increase in fertilizer K (+50.88 kg K20/ha) and N and P fertilizer was minute increase N (+ 4.32 Kg N/ha) and P (+ 6.21 Kg P2o5/ha). Result revealed that nutrient expert application significantly increase higher grain yields over farmer fertilizer practice (FFP). Average wheat grain yield in NE practice was 45.32 Kg ha-1, which was 13.9% more than the Farmer Fertilizer Practices, with NE recorded an additional net income of Rs.8434 ha-1 over FFP respectively. Vishal B. Shahi, Sudarshan K. Dutta, Kaushik Majumdar, Amit Tomar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of discharged pulp and paper mill effluent on the blood morphology of Heteropneustes fossilis (Singhi) The present study was undertaken to know the effect of common mixed pulp and paper mill effluent discharge released from century pulp and paper mill Lalkuan, Nainital Uttarakhand on the blood morphology of Heteropneustes fossilis (Singhi). The various morphological changes were observed in the specimen, randomly collected with the help of cast net from (3 sites) different locations. The maximum changes were observed in the specimen collected from site 3 in compare to site 1 and 2 respectively. The formation of inclusion bodies, sickle cells, Cabot rings and ovalocytes were recorded along with nuclear fusion, membrane disruption and cell clumping of blood cells in the specimen collected from the site 3 (i.e. nearer to source of discharge) while in the specimen collected from site 2, the formation of tear drop cell, target cells, spherocytes and bi-nucleated cells were recorded along with the activity of cell clumping. The changes were found less in the specimen collected from site 1 in compare to the specimen of site 2 and 3 i.e. formation of ovalocytes, spherocytes and microcytes with the activity of membrane degeneration and agglutination in blood cells. V. K. Misra, C. P. Singh, Anup Kumar, Shasank Singh, A. N. Tripathi, Gyan Chandra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 08 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Integrated Nutrient Management as a performance enhancer in Mustard The present study was undertaken to know the effect of common mixed pulp and paper mill effluent discharge released from century pulp and paper mill Lalkuan, Nainital Uttarakhand on the blood morphology of Heteropneustes fossilis (Singhi). The various morphological changes were observed in the specimen, randomly collected with the help of cast net from (3 sites) different locations. The maximum changes were observed in the specimen collected from site 3 in compare to site 1 and 2 respectively. The formation of inclusion bodies, sickle cells, Cabot rings and ovalocytes were recorded along with nuclear fusion, membrane disruption and cell clumping of blood cells in the specimen collected from the site 3 (i.e. nearer to source of discharge) while in the specimen collected from site 2, the formation of tear drop cell, target cells, spherocytes and bi-nucleated cells were recorded along with the activity of cell clumping. The changes were found less in the specimen collected from site 1 in compare to the specimen of site 2 and 3 i.e. formation of ovalocytes, spherocytes and microcytes with the activity of membrane degeneration and agglutination in blood cells. Sauhard Dubey, Gaurav Shukla ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 02 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000